How and Why Did Women in SNCC
(the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)
Author a Pathbreaking Feminist Manifesto, 1964-1965?


Beito, David T. and Linda Royster. Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

Belfrage, Sally. Freedom Summer. New York: Viking, 1965.

Blain, Keisha N. and Kathryn Kish Sklar. "How Did the President's Commission on the Status of Women and Subsequent State and Local Commissions Address Issues Related to Race, 1963-1980?" Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000, Vol. 14, No. 2, September 2010.

Branch, Taylor. Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Breines, Winifred. The Trouble Between Us: An Uneasy History of White and Black Women in the Feminist Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Cancian, Francesca. Love in America: Gender and Self-Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Carmichael, Stokely with Ekwueme Michael Thelwell, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture). New York: Scribner, 2003.

Carson, Clayborne. In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Charron, Katherine Mellen. Freedom's Teacher: The Life of Septima Clark. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Cieciorka, Frank and Bobbi Cieciorka. Negroes in American History: A Freedom Primer. Atlanta: The Student Voice, Inc., 1965.

Cobb, Charles E. This NonViolent Stuff'll Get You Killed: How Guns Made the Civil Rights Movement Possible. New York: Basic, 2014.

Cobb, James C. The Most Southern Place on Earth: The Mississippi Delta and the Roots of Regional Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Cohen, Robert and David J. Snyder Ed, et al., eds. Rebellion in Black and White: Southern Student Activism in the 1960s. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

Collier-Thomas, Bettye and V.P. Franklin. Sisters in the Struggle: African-American Women in the Civil Rights--Black Power Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Crawford, Vicki L., Jacqueline Anne Rouse and Barbara Woods, eds. Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers & Torchbearers 1941-1965. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson, 1990.

Crenshaw, Kimberly and Neil Gotanda, eds. Critical Race Theory: the Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: New Press, 1996.

Crosby, Emilye, ed. Civil Rights History from the Ground Up: Local Struggles, a National Movement. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2011.

______. A Little Taste of Freedom: The Black Freedom Struggle in Claiborne County, Mississippi. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Curry, Constance, Joan C. Browning, Dorothy Dawson Burlage, Penny Patch, Theresa Del Pozzo, Sue Thrasher, Elaine DeLott Baker, Emmie Schrader Adams and Casey Hayden, eds. Deep in Our Hearts: Nine White Women in the Freedom Movement. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Daniel, Pete. Dispossession: Discrimination against African American Farmers in the Age of Civil Rights. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

Dittmer, John. Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Driskell, Jay. Schooling Jim Crow: The Fight for Atlanta's Booker T. Washington High School and the Roots of Black Protest Politics. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2014.

DuPlessis, Rachel Blau and Ann Snitow, eds. The Feminist Memoir Project: Voices from Women's Liberation. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1998.

Echols, Alice. Daring to Be Bad. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

Evans, Sara M. and Harry C. Boyte. Free Spaces: The Sources of Democratic Change in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Evans, Sara. Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.

Fleming, Cynthia Griggs. Soon We Will Not Cry: The Liberation of Ruby Doris Smith Robinson. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. 1998.

Forman, James. The Making of Black Revolutionaries. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1985.

Freedman, Estelle B. Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.

Freeman, Jo. "The Legal Basis of the Sexual Caste System." Valparaiso University Law Review, 5:2 (1971). Accessible online at

Giardina, Carol. Freedom for Women: Forging the Women's Liberation Movement, 1953-1970. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2010.

Gitin, Maria. This Bright Light of Ours: Stories from the Voting Rights Fight. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2014.

Glisson, Susan M. The Human Tradition in the Civil Rights Movement. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

Gore, Dayo F., Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard, eds. Want to Start a Revolution? Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

Greenberg, Cheryl Lynn, ed. A Circle of Trust: Remembering SNCC. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998.

Greene, Christina. Our Separate Ways; Women and the Black Freedom Movement in Durham, North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Hahn, Steven. A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.

Hale, Jon N. "A History of the Mississippi Freedom Schools, 1954-1965." Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009.

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. "The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past." Journal of American History, 91:4 (March 2005), 1233-63.

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. Revolt Against Chivalry: Jessie Daniel Ames and the Women's Campaign against Lynching. New York: Columbia University Press, Rev. ed., 1993.

Carol Hanisch, The Personal Is Political, (pamphlet) February 1969, online at

Harwell, Debbie Z. Wednesdays in Mississippi: Proper Ladies Working for Radical Change, Freedom Summer, 1964. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2014.

Herron, Matt. Mississippi Eyes: The Story and Photography of the Southern Documentary Project. San Rafael, CA: Talking Fingers, 2014.

Hogan, Wesley C. Many Minds, One Heart: SNCC's Dream for a New America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Holsaert, Faith S., Martha Prescod Norman Noonan, Judy Richardson, Betty Garman Robinson, Jean Smith Young and Dorothy M. Zellner, eds. Hands on the Freedom Plow: Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Houck, Davis W. and David E. Dixon, eds. Women and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2009.

Isaacs, Harold Robert. Emergent Americans: A Report on "Crossroads Africa." New York: John Day, 1961.

Jacobs, Paul and Saul Landau. The New Radicals: A Report with Documents. New York: Vintage Books, 1966.

Joseph, Peniel. Stokely: A Life. New York: Basic Books 2014.

King, Ed and Trent Watts. Ed King's Mississippi: Behind the Scenes of Freedom Summer. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2014.

King, Mary. Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement. New York: Quill, 1987.

Klibaner, Irwin. Conscience of a Troubled South: The Southern Conference Education Fund, 1946-1966. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson, 1989.

Lawson, Steven F. Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944-1969. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976.

Lee, Chana Kai. For Freedom's Sake: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Ling, Peter J. and Sharon Monteith, eds. Gender and the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Garland, 1999.

Manners Smith, Karen and Tim Koster. Time It Was: American Stories from the Sixties. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.

Marsh, Charles. The Beloved Community: How Faith Shapes Social Justice, from the Civil Rights Movement to Today. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

Marshall, James P. Student Activism and Civil Rights in Mississippi: Protest Politics and the Struggle for Racial Justice, 1960-1965. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2013.

Martinez, Elizabeth Sutherland, ed. Letters from Mississippi: Reports from Civil Rights Volunteers & Poetry of the 1964 Freedom Summer. Brookline, Mass.: Zephyr Press, 2007.

May, Gary. Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy. New York: Basic Books, 2013.

Mayeri, Serena. "How and Why Was Feminist Legal Strategy Transformed, 1960-1973?" Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2007.

McAdam, Doug. Freedom Summer. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

McGuire, Danielle L. At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance--a New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010.

McMillen, Neil R. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

______. The Citizens' Council: Organized Resistance to the Second Reconstruction, 1954-64. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Meier, August, ed. Black Experience: The Transformation of Activism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1973.

Mills, Kay. This Little Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer. New York, N.Y.: Dutton, 1993.

Mills, Nicolaus. Like a Holy Crusade: Mississippi 1964—The Turning of the Civil Rights Movement. Chicago: I.R. Dee, 1992.

Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dial Press, 1968.

Morris, Aldon D. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Free Press, 1986.

Moynihan, Daniel P. "Memorandum to Mrs. Peterson." 26 March 1963. Footnote 47 in Blain and Sklar, "How Did the President's Commission on the Status of Women . . . Address Issues Related to Race." Women and Social Movements in the United States.

Murphree, Vanessa. The Selling of Civil Rights: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Use of Public Relations. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Murray, Pauli. The Autobiography of a Black Activist, Feminist, Lawyer, Priest, and Poet. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989.

O'Reilly, Kenneth. Racial Matters: The FBI's Secret File on Black America, 1960-1972. New York: Free Press, 1991.

Orum, Anthony. Black Students in Protest: A Study of the Origins of the Black Student Movement. Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association, 1972.

Payne, Charles M. I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

______. "Men Led, but Women Organized: Movement Participation of Women in the Mississippi Delta." in West, Guida and Rhoda Lois Blumberg, eds. Women and Social Protest. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Plimpton, Ruth T. Operation Crossroads Africa. New York: Viking, 1962.

Polletta, Francesca. "Culture and Its Discontents: Recent Theorizing on the Cultural Dimensions of Protest." Sociological Inquiry, 67:4 (Nov. 1997), 431-50.

______. "Culture and Movements." ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 619 (2008), 78-96.

______. Freedom is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in American Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

______. "How Participatory Democracy Became White: Culture and Organizational Choice." Mobilization: An International Journal 10:2 (Feb. 2005), 271-88.

______. It Was Like a Fever: Storytelling in Protest and Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

______. "Strategy and Identity in 1960s Black Protest: The Activism of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, 1960-1967." (Unpub. Ph.D. Diss., Yale University, 1994).

Ransby, Barbara. Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Risen, Clay. The Bill of the Century: The Epic Battle for the Civil Rights Act. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2014.

Robnett, Belinda. "African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965: Gender, Leadership, and Micromoblization." American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 101, No. 6 (May 1996), pp. 1661-93.

______. How Long? How Long?: African-American Women in the Struggle for Civil Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Ross, Rosetta E. Witnessing & Testifying: Black Women, Religion, and Civil Rights. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.

Roth, Benita. Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America's Second Wave. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Rothschild, Mary. A Case of Black and White: Northern Volunteers and the Southern Freedom Summers, 1964-1965. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.

______. "The Volunteers and the Freedom Schools: Education for Social Change in Mississippi." History of Education Quarterly 22:4 (Winter, 1982): 401-20.

Schultz, Debra L. Going South: Jewish Women in the Civil Rights Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Sellers, Cleveland with Robert L. Terrell. River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC. New York: Morrow, 1973.

Shapiro, Herbert. White Violence and Black Response: From Reconstruction to Montgomery. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.

Shapiro, Frank R. "Historical Notes on the Vocabulary of the Women's Movement." American Speech, 60:1 (Spring 1985), 3-16.

Sklar, Kathryn Kish. Women's Rights Emerges within the Antislavery Movement, 1830-1870. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000.

Stoper, Emily. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: The Growth of Radicalism in a Civil Rights Organization. Brooklyn: Carlson, 1989.

Sugarman, Tracy. Stranger at the Gates. New York: Hill & Wang, 1966.

Weisstein, Naomi. "Sexual Caste System Chicago Illinois." Spark, 3:3 (March 1970), Women's Liberation Ephemera Files, Special Collections, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.

Williams, Patricia J. Seeing a Color-Blind Future: The Paradox of Race. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998.

Wright, Gavin. Sharing the Prize: The Economics of the Civil Rights Revolution in the American South. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.

Zinn, Howard. "Schools in Context: The Mississippi Idea." Nation, Nov. 23, 1964, 3-10.

______. SNCC, The New Abolitionists. Boston: Beacon Press, 1964.

Endnotes Document
Project Credits

| Documents Projects and Archives | Teacher's Corner | Scholar's Edition | Full-Text Sources | About Us | Contact Us |