How Did White Women Aid Former Slaves during and after
the Civil War and What Obstacles Did They Face?

Abstract

       During the Civil War, northern White women volunteered to assist freedmen and women and sought to mobilize the Federal Government in support of these efforts. With private assistance and through the Freedmen's Bureau these women taught schools, dispensed charity, ran employment bureaus and assisted migration. This project tells the story of their efforts and the conflicts that arose with male reformers who were concerned that the freedpeople were becoming overly dependent on others. The final section tells the story of one freedmen's school in Virginia that continued in operation into the 1890's.

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