Document 11C: "Rapport (Project de Décret sur les Clubs) par le Citoyen Anthanase Coquerel--Séance du 22 Juillet 1848" (Report in the Decree of Clubs by Citizen Anthanase Coquerel, Session of July 22, 1848), Constituent Assembly, 1848-1849. Impressions, III, no. 252:9. Translated by Karen M. Offen. Reprinted in Susan Groag Bell and Karen M. Offen, eds., Women, the Family, and Freedom: The Debate in Documents, Volume I, 1750-1880 (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1983), p. 249.

        Article 3 assures the public nature of meetings, according to the simple and fruitful principle that publicity is the corrective for liberty. . . . A gathering of free citizens should not be allowed to transform itself into a council shrouded in mystery; the matters presented for discussion in the clubs being of interest to all citizens, it follows that everyone should be admitted. This publicity does not extend to minors and women. The minors will have their turn; they can wait and can pursue their studies better elsewhere than in club meetings. The suitable and legitmate place for women is in private life and not in public life. Woman is always the loser when she departs from the former for the latter and, besides, historic memories of the presence of women in political assemblies suffice to exclude them.

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