From Wollstonecraft to Mill: What British and European Ideas and Social Movements
Influenced the Emergence of Feminism in the Atlantic World, 1792-1869?

Endnotes

Introduction

1. See Eleanor Flexner, Mary Wollstonecraft:  A Biography (Baltimore:  Penguin Books, 1972), pp. 19-115.
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2. Mary Wollstonecraft, Thoughts on the Education of Daughters:  with Reflections on Female Conduct, in the more Important Duties of Life (London:  Joseph Johnson, 1787; facsimile by Garland, 1974).  See also Mary Wollstonecraft, The Female Reader (London:  Joseph Johnson, 1789; facsimile by Scholars’ Facsimilies & Reprints, 1980).  For more on Wollstonecraft, see Janet M. Todd, ed., A Wollstonecraft Anthology (Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 1977); William Godwin, Memoirs of the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of Woman (London:  1798; reprinted by Galand, 1974); Ralph Martin Wardle, ed., Collected Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft (Ithaca:  Cornell University Press, 1979); and Eileen Janes Yeo, ed., Mary Wollstonecraft and 200 years of Feminisms (London:  Rivers Oram Press, 1997).
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3. Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Men, in a Letter to the right Honourable Edmund Burke (London:  Joseph Johnson, 1790; facsimile by Scholars’ Facsimilies & Reprints, 1960).  For more on the revolutionary context of Wollstonecraft’s life, see Harriet B. Applewhite and Darline G. Levy, Women and Politics in the Age of the Democratic Revolution (Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press, 1990).
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4. For Rousseau, see Linda K. Kerber, Women of the Republic:  Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina Press, 1980), pp. 23-27, 241-43.
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5. C. Kegan Paul, William Godwin:  His Friends and Contemporaries, 2 Vols.  (Boston:  Roberts Bros., 1876), Vol. I, p. 171. Quoted in Todd, ed., Wollstonecraft Anthology,  p. 3.   
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6. Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary, A Fiction (London:  Joseph Johnson, 1788; facsimile by Garland, 1974).
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7. For an interpretation of this fiction, see Cathy Davidson, Revolution and the Word: The Rise of the Novel in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).
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8. Mary Wollstonecraft, An Historical and Moral View of the Origin and Progress of the French Revolution (London:  J. Johnson, 1794).
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9. Mary Wollstonecraft, The Wrongs of Woman:  or, Maria, in Posthumous Works of the Author of a Vindication of  the Rights of Woman (London:  J. Johnson, 1798; facsimile by Garland, 1974; and by Augustus M. Kelley, 1972; and W. W. Norton, 1975).
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10. See Flexner, Mary Wollstonecraft, pp. 245-66.
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11. Bonnie S. Anderson, Joyous Greetings:  The First International Women’s Movement, 1830-1860 (New York:  Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 14.
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12. Kathryn Kish Sklar, Women’s Rights Emerges within the Antislavery Movement, 1830-1870:  A Brief History with Documents (Boston:  Bedford Books, 2000), pp. 28-40, 92-152;   Daniel Wright, What Was the Appeal of Moral Reform to Antebellum Northern Women? a project on this website; Mabel Newcomber, A Century of Higher Education for American Women (New York:  Harper and Row, 1959), pp. 37, 46.
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13. See Carl J. Guarneri, The Utopian Alternative: Fourierism in Nineteenth-Century America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991).
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14. Quoted in Guarneri, Utopian Alternative, p. 396.
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15. Quoted in Paul Boyer, “Frances Wright,” Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, Paul S. Boyer, eds., Notable American Women, 3 vols. (Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1971), 3:678.
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16. A. J. G. Perkins and Theresa Wolfson, Frances Wright, Free Enquirer:  The Study of a Temperament (New York:  Harper & Bros., 1939), pp. 236-52.
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17. For Owen see Robert Owen, A New View of Society (1813; reprinted by A. M. Kelley, 1972); and G. D. H. Cole, The Life of Robert Owen (London:  Macmillan, 1930).  For Robert Owen’s patriarchial attitude toward women seeking utopia in his communities, see Carol A. Kolmerten, Women in Utopia:  The Ideology of Gender in the American Owenite Communities (Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 1990), p.  97.
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18. Anderson, Joyous Greetings, pp. 159-60; Karen Offen, European Feminisms, 1700-1950:  A Political History (Stanford:  Stanford University Press,  2000), pp. 112-20; and Claire Goldberg Moses, French Feminism in the Nineteenth Century (Albany:  State University of New York Press, 1984), pp. 41-59.
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19. Remembered today as the first woman sociologist, Martineau was the author of Illustrations of Political Economy (9 volumes, 1832–34), which offered a wide range of investigative reporting about social issues and marked the intellectual transition in Britain from the Romantic to the Victorian eras.  For more on Martineau, see R. K. Webb, Harriet Martineau:  A Radical Victorian (New York:  Columbia University Press, 1960); Maria Weston Chapman, ed., Harriet Martineau’s Autobiography, 2 vols, (Boston:  Osgood, 1877); Deborah Anna Logan, ed., Writings on Slavery and the American Civil War:  Harriet Martineau (DeKalb:  Northern Illinois University Press, 2002); Deborah Anna Logan, ed., Harriet Martineau’s Writing on the British Empire, 5 vols. (London:  Pickering & Chatto, 2003).
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20. See Dorothy Thompson, The Chartists:  Popular Politics in the Industrial Revolution (New York:  Pantheon, 1984).   For Catherine and Goodwyn Barmby see Barbara Taylor, Eve and the New Jerusalem:  Socialism and Feminism in the Nineteenth Century (New York:  Pantheon, 1983), pp. 172-82.  Quote p. 181. 
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21. Quoted in Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 15.
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22. Anderson, Joyous Greetings,  p. 8.
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23. The website “Anne Knight,” accessed January 20, 2003.
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24. Anderson, Joyous Greetings, pp. 14-16, 21, 58.  Quote p. 14.
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25. Kathryn Kish Sklar, Anja Schuler and Susan Strasser, eds., Social Justice Feminists in the United States and Germany:  A Dialogue in Documents, 1885-1933 (Ithaca:  Cornell University Press, 1998), pp.  33-34.
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26. Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 8.
         
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27. Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 191.
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28. Theodore Stanton and Harriot Stanton Blatch, eds., Elizabeth Cady Stanton as Revealed in Her Letters, Diary, and Reminiscences (New York:  Harper, 1922), Vol. 2, p. 201, quoted in Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p.  190.
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29. Anderson, Joyous Greetings, pp. 47-54.
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30. For this and other writings by Taylor, see Ann P. Robson and John M. Robson, eds., Sexual Equality:  Writings by John Stuart Mill, Harriet Taylor Mill, and Helen Taylor (Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1994); Alice Rossi, ed., Essays on Sex Equality: John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill  (Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1970).
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31. On the importance of Quaker influences in the United States, see Nancy A. Hewitt, “Feminist Friends:  Agrarian Quakers and the Emergence of Woman’s Rights,” Feminist Studies (Spring 1986): 27-49.
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32. Robson and Robson, Sexual Equality, pp. 178-203.
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33. For Taylor’s separate voice, see Jo Ellen Jacobs, The Voice of Harriet Taylor Mill (Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 2002).
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34. John Stuart Mill to Harriet Taylor [1850?], printed in F. A. Hayek, John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor:  Their Correspondence and Subsequent Marriage (London:  Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951), pp. 166-67,  quoted in Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 9.
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35. Anderson, Joyous Greeings, p. 182.
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36. For more on Bremer, see Lewis Perry, Boats Against the Current:  American Culture Between Revolution and Modernity, 1820-1860 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 105-23.
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37. Joseph W.  Reed, ed., Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon: An American Diary, 1857-8 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972), p. 47. See also Olive Banks, “Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon, 1827-1891,” The Biographical Dictionary of British Feminists: Vol. I:  1800-1930 (New York:  New York University Press, 1985), pp. 27-30.
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38. Reed, An American Diary, 139-41.  For Mott, see Beverly Wilson Palmer, ed., Selected Letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott (Urbana:  University of Illinois Press, 2002).
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39. Susan Groag Bell and Karen M. Offen, eds., Women, the Family, and Freedom:  The Debate in Documents, Vol. 1, 1750-1880 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983), pp. 335-42.
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40. Antony Copley, “Pierre-Joseph Proudhon:  A Reassessment  of His Role as a Moralist,” French History, 3 (1989): 194-221.
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41. Karen Offen, “A Nineteenth-Century French Feminist Rediscovered: Jenny D’Hericourt, 1809-1875,” Signs, 13 (1987): 144-158.
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42. Proceedings of the Woman’s Rights Convention (New York, 1853),  pp. 88-89, quoted in Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 26. 
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43. Proceedings of the Seventh National Woman’s Rights Convention, held in New York City, November 25 and 26, 1856 (New York:  Edward O. Jenkins, 1856), p. 35, quoted in Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 26.
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44. Leila J. Rupp, Worlds of Women:  The Making of an International Women’s Movement (Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1997), pp. 14-15.
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45. Ian Tyrrell, The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union in International Perspective, 1880-1930 (Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina Press, 1991), p. 20.
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46. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. “On Marriage and Divorce,” in Paulina Wright Davis, A History of the National Woman’s Rights Movement for Twenty Years with Proceedings of the Decade Meeting held at Apollo Hall, October 20, 1870 (New York:  Journeymen Printers, 1871), p. 60.
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Document 4

47. See Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 72.
         
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Document 11A

48. Kathryn Sklar's communication with Karen Offen, July 9, 2003.
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Document 16A

49. Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 183.
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Document 18A

50. Ernestine Rose, letter, Boston Investigator, 26 Novemeber 1856, p. 1, as quoted in Anderson, Joyous Greetings, p. 47.
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