How Did Women's War Relief in the Spanish-American War Alter Traditions of Female Benevolence and Pave the Way for Women's Formal Military Service?


       Women's relief work in the war between the U.S. and Spain marked a shift from traditional patterns of voluntary aid to the new professional military roles women began to occupy in the twentieth century. Clara Barton, Anita Newcomb McGee, Janet Jennings, Helen Gould, and Ellen Hardin Walworth played important but distinct roles in that transition.


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