How Did the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Campaign against Chemical Warfare, 1915-1930?

Endnotes

Introduction

1. Edmund Russell, War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects with Chemicals from World War I to Silent Spring (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 27. For a detailed account of the battle at Ypres, see "The Second Battle of Ypres, April 1915."
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2. Russell, War and Nature, p. 38.
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3. Quoted in Russell, War and Nature, p. 39.
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4. Russell, War and Nature, pp. 53-56. For more on Fries's involvement in conservative attacks on the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in the 1920s, see WILPF and Right-Wing Attacks, 1923-1931, another document project on this website.
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5. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Study of the Historical, Technical, Military, Legal and Political Aspects of CBW, and Possible Disarmament Measures, Volume 1: The Rise of CB Weapons (New York: Humanities Press, 1971), pp. 236 and 274.
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6. Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman, A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare (New York: Hill and Wang, 1982), p. 33.
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7. Gertrude Bussey and Margaret Tims, Pioneers for Peace: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915-1965 (London: WILPF British Section, 1980), chapter 2. For more on the meeting at The Hague, see "How Did Women Peace Envoys Promote Peace by Touring European Capitals in 1915?" another document project on this website.
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8. Carrie A. Foster, The Women and the Warriors: The U.S. Section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915-1946 (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1995), p. 34.
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9. Bussey, Pioneers for Peace, pp. 47-48, 65-67.
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10. For more on WILPF's tolerance of varying opinions and activities, see Linda K. Schott, Reconstructing Women's Thoughts: The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Before World War II (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997), pp. 55-77.
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11. Augustin M. Prentiss, Civil Air Defense: A Treatise on the Protection of the Civil Population Against Air Attack (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1941), pp. 4 and 6.
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12. SIPRI, The Problem, p. 244.
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13. SIPRI, The Problem, p. 266.
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14. L. F. Haber, The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), p. 19.
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15. Russell, War and Nature, pp. 53-56.
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Image 2

16. Frida Perlen, Der Kampf der Frauen gegen die Hölle von Gift under Feuer (n.p.: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Württemberg branch, 1927), p. 51.
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Document 8

17. Bussey, Pioneers for Peace, chapter 2.
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18. Bussey, Pioneers for Peace, pp. 47-48.
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Document 11

19. Perlen, Der Kampf der Frauen, p. 4. A typo in the original has been silently corrected here. The original German text spells Stowe's last name "Stone." Our thanks to Dirk Hoerder of the University of Bremen for his help in finding a copy of this pamphlet.
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Document 15

20. Foster, Women and the Warriors, p. 34. See also "How Did Women Peace Envoys Promote Peace by Touring European Capitals in 1915?" also on this website.
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Document 20

21. Russell, War and Nature, pp. 67-69.
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