How Did Iowa Women Activists Lobby for the
Passage of the Juvenile Court Law in 1904?

Endnotes

1. Samuel Walker, Popular Justice: A History of American Criminal Justice (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 104.
       Back to Text

2. Herbert H. Lou, Juvenile Courts in the United States (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1927), pp. 19, 22, 24.
       Back to Text

3. David J. Rothman, Conscience and Convenience: The Asylum and its Alternatives in Progressive America (New York: Harper Collins, 1980), p. 213.
       Back to Text

4. Rothman, Conscience and Convenience, p. 209.
       Back to Text

5. International Prison Commission, Children’s Courts in the United States: Their Origin, Development, and Results (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904), p. xiii.
       Back to Text

6. Rothman, Conscience and Convenience, pp. 216-17.
       Back to Text

7. International Prison Commission,Children’s Court in the United States, p. xiii.
       Back to Text

8. Rothman, Conscience and Convenience, p. 220.
       Back to Text

9. Rothman, Conscience and Convenience, pp. 218-19.
       Back to Text

10. Elizabeth J. Clapp, Mothers of All Children: Women Reformers and the Rise of Juvenile Courts in Progressive Era America (University Park: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998), Chapter 2.
       Back to Text

11. Molly Ladd-Taylor, Mother-Work: Women, Child Welfare and the State, 1890-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994), p. 48.
       Back to Text

12. Ladd-Taylor, Mother-Work, pp. 43-5.
       Back to Text

13. Rothman, Conscience and Convenience, p. 212.
       Back to Text

14. Ladd-Taylor, Mother-Work, pp. 43-4.
       Back to Text

15. Hazel Hillis Modine, "A Biography of Cora Bussey Hillis," pp. 8-9. (need more information for this source)
       Back to Text

16. Modine, "A Biography of Cora Bussey Hillis," p. 13.
       Back to Text

17. Anne Meis Knupfer, Reform and Resistance: Gender, Delinquency, and America's First Juvenile Courts (New York: Routledge, 2001), p. 81. Quote cited in Joan Gittens, Poor Relations: The Children of the State of Illinois, 1818-1990 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994), p. 116.
       Back to Text

Last
Document
Document
List
Bibliography

| Documents Projects and Archives | Teacher's Corner | Scholar's Edition | Full-Text Sources | About Us | Contact Us |