How Did Kate Richards O'Hare's Conviction and Incarceration for Sedition
during World War I Change Her Activism?

Endnotes

Introduction

1. Quote from Neil K. Basen, "Kate Richards O'Hare: The 'First Lady' of American Socialism, 1901-1917," Labor History, 21 (Spring 1980): 169. The Campbellite Disciples of Christ movement, founded by Alexander Campbell, believed that the New Testament, rather than the clergy or church dogma, was the sole source of religious knowledge. For more on nineteenth-century Protestant movements against organized churches, see Christian Church/Disciples of Christ in 19th Century Indiana.
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2. Kate Richards O'Hare, "How I Became a Socialist Agitator," The Socialist Woman (October 1908): 4.
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3. Basen, "Kate Richards O'Hare," p. 169.
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4. Basen, "Kate Richards O'Hare," p. 170.
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5. O'Hare, "How I Became a Socialist Agitator," p. 5.
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6. Basen, "Kate Richards O'Hare," p. 172.
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7. Basen, "Kate Richards O'Hare," pp. 172-73.
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8. Basen, "Kate Richards O'Hare," p. 174.
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9. Basen, "Kate Richards O'Hare," pp. 174-75.
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10. Basen, "Kate Richards O'Hare," p. 175.
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11. Sally M. Miller, From Prairie to Prison: The Life of Social Activist Kate Richards O'Hare (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1993), p. 46.
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12. Zechariah Chafee, Jr., Free Speech in the United States (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954), p. 39.
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13. Chafee, Free Speech, p. 41.
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14. There is speculation that O'Hare delivered this speech as many as 150 times.
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15. William E. Zeuch, The Truth About the O'Hare Case (St. Louis: F. P. O'Hare, [1919]), p. 13.
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16. Kathleen Kennedy, "Casting an Evil Eye on the Youth of the Nation: Motherhood and Political Subversion in the Wartime Prosecution of Kate Richards O'Hare, 1917-1924," American Studies, 39:3 (Fall 1998): 109.
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17. Kennedy, "Casting an Evil Eye," p. 106.
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18. Kennedy, "Casting an Evil Eye," pp. 109-10.
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19. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 151.
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20. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 154. See also Kennedy, "Casting an Evil Eye."
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21. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, pp. 155-56.
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22. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 159.
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23. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, pp. 159-60.
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24. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, pp. 173-74.
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25. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, pp. 174-75.
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26. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, pp. 180-81.
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27. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, pp. 179-80.
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28. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 180.
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29. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 206.
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30. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 207.
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31. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 204.
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32. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, pp. 219-26.
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33. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, pp. 226-27.
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34. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 227 and Robert E. Burke, Olson's New Deal for California (Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 1983; originally published in 1953), pp. 181-84.
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35. Miller, From Prairie to Prison, p. 228.
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