Why Did the Iowa League of Women Voters Oppose the
Equal Rights Amendment during the 1940s and 1950s?

Endnotes

1. See Leila J. Rupp and Verta Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women’s Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), pp. 48-49. See also Sara Evans,  Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America (New York: Free Press, 1989 & 1997),  pp. 232, 277; Cynthia Harrison,  On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women’s Issues, 1945-1968 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), p. 8.
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2. One example of this protective legislation is the case of Muller v. Oregon (1908), which upheld a 10-hour limit on women’s workday length in Oregon.  See Nancy Woloch,  Muller v. Oregon: A Brief History with Documents (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1996), pp. 52-61.
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3. Jan Beran, The League of Women Voters of Iowa: A Voice for Citizens, A Force for Change (Des Moines, Iowa: League of Women Voters of Iowa, 1997),  p. 5.
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4. Rupp, Survival in the Doldrums, p. 48; Evans, Born For Liberty, pp. 232, 277.
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5. Adelyn Kimball Hunt,  "Address to the Iowa League of Women Voters, Sioux City, April 18, 1943,"  Folder: Legislation, League Reports, Roll Calls, Etc.,  Box 20, League of Women Voters of Iowa Papers, Iowa Women’s Archives, University of Iowa Libraries.
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6. Folder: State Numbers, Membership League of Women Voters of Iowa Papers, Box 47, Iowa Women’s Archives, University of Iowa Libraries.
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7. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1955.  Vol. 77  (Washington, DC: United States Printing Office, 1956),  pp. 20, 42, 45, 131, 225.
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8. League of Women Voters’ 1955 Program,  Folder: Publications--National Broadsides, Box 48, League of Women Voters of Iowa Papers, Iowa Women’s Archives, University of Iowa Libraries.
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9. Rupp, Survival in the Doldrums, pp 6-7 and Susan Lynn, “Gender and Progressive Politics: A Bridge to Social Activism of the 1960s,” in Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America, 1945-1960,  Joanne Meyerowitz, ed. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994), pp 103-27
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10. Congressional Digest,  22 (1943), pp.  99-128.
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