How Did Abolitionist Women and Their Slaveholding Relatives
Negotiate Their Conflict over the Issue of Slavery?

Endnotes

Introduction

1. Two useful brief accounts of the life and reform activities of Martha Wright are Paul Messbarger, "Martha Coffin Pelham Wright (1806-1875)," in Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary, Edward T. James, et al., eds. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), 3: 684-85 and Kathleen Banks Nutter, "Martha Coffin Pelham Wright," in American National Biography, John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes, eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 24: 44-45. For a lengthier treatment, see Sherry H. Penney and James D. Livingston, "Expectant at Seneca Falls," New York History, 84 (Winter 2003), 32-49; "Expectant at Seneca Falls" is reprinted elsewhere in this project. A full-length biography of Martha Wright by the same authors is to be published by University of Massachusetts Press.

       Lucretia Mott has been the subject of numerous biographies, including Margaret Hope Bacon, Valiant Friend: The Life of Lucretia Mott (New York: Walker, 1980) and Otelia Cromwell, Lucretia Mott (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958). Her reform network is the focus of another project on this website, "How Did Lucretia Mott's Activism between 1840 and 1860 Combine her Commitments to Antislavery and Women's Rights?" Lucretia and Martha corresponded regularly, and many of Lucretia's letters to Martha appear in Beverly Wilson Palmer, ed., Selected Letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002).
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2. The antislavery movement and the early woman's movement were closely linked, as discussed in Kathryn Kish Sklar, Women's Rights Emerges within the Antislavery Movement, 1830-1870: A Brief History With Documents (Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2000). For an overview of the abolition movement, see James Brewer Stewart, Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery (New York: Hill and Wang, 1976). The classic treatment of the early woman's rights movement is Eleanor Flexner, A Century of Struggle (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), while the most complete source is Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage, originally 2 volumes, published in 1881 (reprint edition, Salem, N.H.: Ayer Co., 6 volumes, 1985).
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3. The Seneca Falls Convention, generally recognized as the start of the organized movement for women's rights in America, was held on July 19 and 20, 1848. The call for the meeting was issued after Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Martha Coffin Wright, and Mary Ann M'Clintock met for tea in the home of Jane Hunt in Waterloo, New York. The importance of this historic convention was recognized by Congress in 1980 by the establishment in Seneca Falls of the Women's Rights National Historical Park, administered by the National Park Service. The homes of Stanton, M'Clintock, and Hunt are now part of the Historical Park. At the time Martha Wright assisted with planning the convention, she was six months pregnant with her seventh child. Her statue in the Park's Visitor Center shows her visibly pregnant, testimony for the ages that the bearing of children does not necessarily preclude women from making important public contributions to society. Martha remained active in the women's movement, presiding over numerous conventions, writing convention reports, advising Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, appearing before legislatures and Congressional committees, carrying petitions, and writing items for publication until her death in 1875, at which time she was President of the National Woman Suffrage Association.
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4. Peter Pelham (1785-1826) was raised in Maysville, Kentucky, and served as a Captain in the U.S. Army. He later worked as an Indian agent in Florida, but became ill and traveled to Philadelphia for medical attention, where he met Martha Coffin. The were married in 1824 and moved to Tampa Bay, where he had become a supplier to an Army fort. He died in 1826 from lingering effects of wounds received during the War of 1812.
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5. The most complete up-to-date biography of Garrison is Henry Mayer, All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998).
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6. Harriet Tubman's remarkable life is described in Earl Conrad, Harriet Tubman (Washington: Associated Publishers, 1943) and Jean Humez, Harriet Tubman: The Life and the Life Stories (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, forthcoming). Tubman settled in Auburn after the Civil War, and Martha Wright and her daughter Eliza Osborne became two of her closest friends and supporters.
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7. Martha Wright to Lucretia Mott, 5 April 1841, Garrison Family Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College.
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8. While he was a medical student in Philadelphia in the early 1820s, Atkinson Pelham had lived in the boardinghouse operated by Martha's mother Anna Coffin. He later settled in Alabama, and he and his wife had six sons, all of whom served in the Confederate army.
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9. Numerous monuments to John Pelham have been erected throughout the South, attesting to his heroic stature in the region. He has been the subject of three biographies: William W. Hassler, Colonel John Pelham, Lee's Boy Artillerist (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960); Philip Mercer, The Life of The Gallant Pelham (Kennesaw, Georgia: Continental Book, 1958); and Charles G. Milham, Gallant Pelham: American Extraordinary (Washington: Public Affairs Press, 1959).
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10. There were no Woman's Rights Conventions held during the war. Instead, in May 1863, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and other feminists formed the Women's National Loyal League, of which Martha Wright was Secretary. In little more than a year, women gathered four hundred thousand signatures supporting emancipation, and submitted the petitions to Congress to demonstrate support for the Thirteenth Amendment, which in 1865 abolished slavery.
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11. William Pelham Wright served as First Lieutenant in a Union artillery battery, and unknowingly faced John Pelham, a Confederate artillery officer, across several bloody battlefields. At Gettysburg, William's battery was instrumental in repelling the famed Pickett's Charge. At the peak of the charge, William received a bullet through his chest, and it was only after many weeks of recovery that it became clear he would survive. His war diaries are in the Osborne Family Papers, Department of Special Collections, Syracuse University Library. The story of his First New York Independent Battery is told in R.L. Murray, "Hurrah for the Ould Flag" (Published by the author, 1998).
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12. Martha Coffin Wright to William Pelham Wright, 1 April 1865, Garrison Family Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College.
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13. In view of the strong pro-slavery positions that Charles took in his prewar letters to his aunt Martha Wright (documents 14 and 16), it is interesting that Charles became active in the Republican party, a position that actually strained his relations with his brothers and neighbors in Alabama.
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14. Martha Wright's correspondence with Lucy Stone and her husband Henry Blackwell about the formation of the American Woman Suffrage Association is described in Robert Riegel, "The Split of the Feminist Movement in 1869," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 49 (December 1962): 485-96. The 1869 split is also discussed in most histories of the woman's movement, e.g., Ellen Carol Dubois, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Woman's Movement, 1848-1869 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978).
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Document 5

15. Tubman’s life is described in Earl Conrad, Harriet Tubman (Washington: Associated Publishers, 1943) and Jean Humez, Harriet Tubman: The Life and the Life Stories (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, forthcoming).
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Document 6

16. For a history and a brief synopsis of this huge project, see History of Woman Suffrage
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17. Accounts of this convention appeared in the Albany Evening Journal, 5 and 6 February 1861, the Liberator, 15 February 1861, and the National Anti-Slavery Standard, 23 February 1861.
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Document 8

18. Letter from William Pelham to Marianna Pelham Mott, 28 March 1854, Garrison Family Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College.
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Document 11

19. James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), pp. 149-52.
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Document 17

20. See William Woods Hassler, Colonel John Pelham: Lee’s Boy Artillerist (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960); Philip Mercer, The Life of the Gallant Pelham (Macon, Ga.: J.W. Burke, 1929); and Charles G. Milham, Gallant Pelham: American Extraordinary (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1959).
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Document 19

21. Several letters to William Pelham from his mother and father are in the William Pelham Papers, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
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Document 22

22. This letter also appears in Ann D. Gordon, ed., The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony, Vol. II (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1997). The first two volumes of this series contain more correspondence with Martha Wright than with any other person.
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Appendix Document
List
Bibliography

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