Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women's Organizations in the 1920s:
How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military?

Endnotes

Introduction

1. See William Appleman Williams, The Roots of the Modern American Empire (New York: Random House, 1969) and Richard D. Challener, Admirals, Generals, and American Foreign Policy, 1898-1914 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973) to learn more about United States foreign policy before World War I.
        Back to Text

2. See Frederick S. Calhoun, Uses of Force and Wilsonian Foreign Policy (Kent, O.H.: Kent State University Press, 1993) for more information on the decision to intervene in World War I and American military involvement afterward.
        Back to Text

3. See Carrie A. Foster, The Women and the Warriors: The US Section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915-1946 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989) for a complete history of the early years of the WPP and WILPF.
        Back to Text

4. Margaret Gibbs, The DAR (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1969), p. 20.
        Back to Text

5. See, for example, "Women to Train as Practical Farmers," DAR Magazine (April 1918): 214-16; "War Medals of the Allies," and "Uncle Sam Trains Sea Cooks for His New Merchant Ships," DAR Magazine (October 1918).
        Back to Text

6. See Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1997), chap. 6, for more information on attacks on pacifists during the Red Scare.
        Back to Text

7. Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose, and Tactics, With an Exposition and Discussion of the Steps Being Taken and Required to Curb It, Report of the Joint Legislative Committee Investigating Seditious Activities, Filed April 24, 1920 in the Senate of the State of New York (Albany: J.B. Lyon Co. Publishers, 1920), p. 971.
        Back to Text

8. Revolutionary Radicalism, p. 1525.
        Back to Text

Document 1

9. Roger Dingman, Power in the Pacific: The Origins of Naval Arms Control, 1914-1922 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), p. 216.
        Back to Text

10. Dingman, Power in the Pacific, p. 4.
        Back to Text

Document 5

11. Richard W. Fanning, Peace and Disarmament: Naval Rivalry and Arms Control, 1922-1933 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1995), p. 6.
        Back to Text

12. Fanning, Peace and Disarmament, pp. 12-18.
        Back to Text

Document 7

13. Foster, The Women and the Warriors, pp. 50-52.
        Back to Text

Document 9

14. For more information on Detzer's involvement in the Sioux City attack on WILPF by the American Legion, see Kim E. Nielsen, "Dangerous Iowa Women: Pacifism, Patriotism, and the Woman-Citizen in Sioux City, 1920-1927,"Annals of Iowa, 56 (Winter/Spring 1997): 80-98. For more information on a peace organization that did require a "Slacker's Oath," see Harriet Hyman Alonso, The Women's Peace Union and the Outlawry of War, 1921-1942 (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1993).
        Back to Text

Document 14

15. Jane Addams to Emily Greene Balch, 31 May 1927. Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Emily Greene Balch Papers (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 18, #1859).
        Back to Text

Document 18

16. Alonso, Women's Peace Union, p. 1.
        Back to Text

17. Alonso, Women's Peace Union, p. xviii.
        Back to Text

Document 19

18. See Fanning, Peace and Disarmament, chap. 5 for more on the failed Geneva Conference and the pacifists' reaction.
        Back to Text

Document 21

19. See Helen Tufts Bailie, "Truth and Justice vs. the DAR Court Martial," 23 June 1928, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Jane Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 20, #22-23) and Gibbs, The DAR, pp. 122-34 for more information on Bailie's protest and expulsion.
        Back to Text

Document 22

20. Mrs. William Sherman Walker, "Synopsis of Chapter Programs: National Defense Committee, Year 1929-1930," DAR Magazine (September 1929): 565-67.
        Back to Text

21. Mrs. William Sherman Walker, "Annual Report of Mrs. William Sherman Walker, Chairman, National Defense Committee, to the Thirty-eighth Continental Congress," DAR Magazine (May 1929): 291-92.
        Back to Text

Conclusion Document
List
Bibliography

 

| Documents Projects and Archives | Teacher's Corner | Scholar's Edition | Full-Text Sources | About Us | Contact Us |