How Did Women Shape the Discourse and Further Interracial Cooperation
in the Worldwide Mass Movement to Free the Scottsboro Boys?

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Abstract

Introduction

Scottsboro Participants

Robin D. G. Kelley, "Scottsboro Case," 1998

               

Part One: The Trials, 1931-1933

Document 1: Helen Marcy, “Whip up Lynch Mobs Against 9 Negroes in Alabama,” 4 April 1931

Document 2: Helen Marcy, “ ‘Save Us’ Negro Boys Write Folks in Chattanooga,” 18 April 1931

Document 3: Hollace Ransdell, "Report on the Scottsboro, Ala. Case for the American Civil Liberties Union," 27 May 1931

Document 4: Mary Licht, "I Remember the Scottsboro Defense," 15 February 1997

Document 5: Ada Wright, “My Two Sons Face the Electric Chair,” September 1931

Document 6: Mary Heaton Vorse, “The Scottsboro Trial,” 19 April 1933

Document 7: Excerpts from the Testimony of Ruby Bates, April 1933

Document 8: Mary Heaton Vorse, “How Scottsboro Happened,” 10 May 1933

               

Part Two: The Defense in the Streets, 1931-1936

Document 9: Helen Marcy, “Mrs. Patterson, Back from N.Y. Tells of Mass Drive to Save 9,” 9 May 1931

Document 10: “Reds Score Pastor for Ban at Church,” 21 October 1931

Document 11: Viola Montgomery, “Free Our Innocent Children,” August 1932

Document 12A: “Police Clubs Rout 200 Defiant Reds, Smash Banners and Scatter Harlem Marchers Who Lacked Permit,” 26 April 1931

Document 12B: “Mass Protest Already Gains Points in Court; Mrs. Wright and Girl Welcomed by New York Workers; Member hit N.A.A.C.P. Traitors,” 16 May 1931

Document 12C: “Thousands in Protest March in New York,” 23 May 1931

Document 12D: “Protest at Executions. Speakers Here Say Eight Negroes in Alabama Were ‘Railroaded,’” 29 June 1931

Document 12E: “Mrs. Williams in Greenville Meet,” 18 July 1931

Document 12F: “Prepare Scottsboro Defense Conference in N.Y. Sept. 13; Local United Front Scottsboro Defense Committee Warns Against Let Down in Campaign; Miss Maddox Speaks in Superior,” 7 September 1931

Document 12G: “10,000 Hear Please to Free Negroes; Union Square Traffic Halted as Reds Urge Racial Unity in Scottsboro Defense. . .Mother of Condemned Youth Appeals for Funds,” 15 April 1933

Document 12H: “5,000 Fight Police in Harlem Streets; Trouble Starts as Tear Gas Is Used to Halt an Unlicensed Scottsboro Protest Meeting,” 18 March 1934

Document 12I: “100,000 Rally Here With No Disorder; Reds Throng Union Square to Cheer for Revolution -- Their Parade Lasts All Day,” 2 May 1934

Document 13: “Mrs. Ada Wright--Mother of Two of the Scottsboro Boys--Just Returned from Europe--Will Make her First Public Appearance in Harlem,” 17 December 1932

Document 14: “Hail the Heroic Scottsboro Mother, Mrs. Ada Wright!” 17 December 1932

Document 15: I.L.D. Open Letter, May 1933

Document 16: Harlem Section I.L.D. Branches

Document 17: “On to Washington! Working People of Harlem, Negro and White!” Rally Handbill, 1933

Document 18: “Ruby Bates Tells Story,” 6 May 1933

Document 19: National Scottsboro Action Committee, “Hear Ruby Bates,” Rally Handbill, 10 May 1933

Document 20: "Demonstrate!" Rally Handbill, April 1934

Document 21: Marguerite Young, "Class War Mother's Day," June 1934

Document 22: "Stop Scottsboro Murder on December 7th!" Rally Handbill, October 1934

Document 23: Scottsboro: The Shame of America, The True Story and the True Meaning of This Famous Case, 1936

               

Part Three: Clarina Michelson and the Communist Party in Harlem

Document 24: Clarina Michelson, Excerpts from Oral History, 29 October 1979

Document 25: Clarina Michelson, Directive to the Harlem Section of the Communist Party on Negro Recruitment, 1933

Document 26: Clarina Michelson to Comrades Ford and Krumbein, 1 June 1934

Document 27: "Clarina Michelson, Communist Candidate for Assembly, 15th Assembly District, NYC," 30 October 1934

               

Images

Image 1: Ruby Bates with Scottsboro Mothers, May Day Parade, 1933

Image 2: Ruby Bates with Scottsboro Mothers, May 1934

 

               

Endnotes

Bibliography

Project Credits

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