How Have Recent Social Movements Shaped Civil Rights Legislation
for Women? The 1994 Violence Against Women Act

Endnotes

Introduction

1. Jenny Rivera, "A Promise Waiting to be Fulfilled: The Violence Against Women Act and the Construction of Multiple Consciousness in the Civil Rights and Feminist Movements," Journal of Law and Policy, 4 (1996), p. 464.
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2. Congressional Record, no. 121, August 22, 1994.
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3. See Journal of the American Medical Association, 267 (17 June 1992).
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4. Melinda Marquis, Ph.D., "Violence Against Women Act Takes a Hit, As Do Women," Colorado Woman News, (30 April 1999), p. 23.
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5. CHRISTY BRZONKALA Petitioner, vs. ANTONIO MORRISON, et al., Respondents. CHRISTY BRZONKALA, Petitioner, vs. ANTONIO MORRISON, et al., Respondents. Nos. 99-5, 99-29, 1999 U.S. Briefs 5, November 12, 1999, On Writ Of Certiorari To The United States Court Of Appeals For The Fourth Circuit. BRIEF AMICI CURIAE OF EQUAL RIGHTS ADVOCATES, p. 1.
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6. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PETITIONER V. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., RESPONDENTS; CHRISTY BRZONKALA, PETITIONER V. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., RESPONDENTS, Nos. 99-5, 99-29, 1999 U.S. Briefs 5, November 12, 1999, ON WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT. BRIEF OF LAW PROFESSORS AS AMICI CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF PETITIONERS.

CHRISTY BRZONKALA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO MORRISON, et al., Respondents. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO MORRISON, et al., Respondents. Nos. 99-0005, 99-0029, 1999 U.S. Briefs 5, October Term, 1999, November 12, 1999, ON WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT. BRIEF AMICI CURIAE ON BEHALF OF INTERNATIONAL LAW SCHOLARS AND HUMAN RIGHTS EXPERTS IN SUPPORT OF PETITIONERS.
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7. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, et al., Respondents. CHRISTY BRZONKALA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, et al., Respondents. Nos. 99-5, 99-29, 1999 U.S. Briefs 5, December 10, 1999, On Writ Of Certiorari To The United States Court Of Appeals For The Fourth Circuit, BRIEF OF THE INSTITUTE FOR JUSTICE AND THE CATO INSTITUTE AS AMICI CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENTS.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PETITIONER v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL. CHRISTY BRZONKALA, PETITIONER v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., Nos. 99-5, 99-29, 1999 U.S. Briefs, December 13, 1999, On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENT, MICHAEL P. FARRIS, SCOTT W. SOMERVILLE, Center for the Original Intent of the Constitution.

UNITED STATES, Petitioner v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON AND JAMES LANDALE CRAWFORD, Respondents. CHRISTY BRZONKALA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON AND JAMES LANDALE CRAWFORD, Respondents, Nos. 99-5, 99-29, 1999 U.S. Briefs 5, December 13, 1999, On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, BRIEF OF CLARENDON FOUNDATION AS AMICUS CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENTS.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., Respondents. CHRISTY BRZONKALA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., Respondents. Nos. 99-5, 99-29, 1999 U.S. Briefs 5, December 13, 1999 , On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE EAGLE FORUM EDUCATION & LEGAL DEFENSE FUND IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENTS, PHYLLIS SCHLAFLY, EAGLE FORUM EDUCATION & LEGAL DEFENSE FUND

CHRISTY BRZONKALA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., Respondents. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., Respondents. Nos. 99-29, 99-5, 1999 U.S. Briefs 29, December 13, 1999, On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE, INDEPENDENT WOMEN'S FORUM IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENTS
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8. CHRISTY BRZONKALA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., Respondents. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Petitioner, v. ANTONIO J. MORRISON, ET AL., Respondents. Nos. 99-29, 99-5, 1999 U.S. Briefs 29, December 13, 1999, On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE, INDEPENDENT WOMEN'S FORUM IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENTS, p. 1.
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9. Linda Greenhouse, "The Supreme Court: The Court on Federalism; Women Lose Right to Sue Attackers in Federal Court," New York Times, (16 May 2000), A1.
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10. The quote is from McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme Court's 1819 ruling that established the power of Congress to use implied powers which are necessary and proper to carry out the powers granted to Congress in the Constitution.
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11. Greenhouse, "The Supreme Court: The Court on Federalism."
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12. Judith Resnik, "Categorical Federalism: Jurisdiction, Gender, and the Globe," Yale Law Journal, 111 (November 2001), pp. 101-02.
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13. Greenhouse, "The Supreme Court: The Court on Federalism."
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14. Greenhouse, "The Supreme Court: The Court on Federalism."
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Document 20

15. For Kathy Rodger's full statement on May 15, 2000, after the U.S. v. Morrison verdict was announced, see NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. The NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund homepage also provides excellent information on the U.S. v. Morrison trial, the VAWA, and the domestic violence epidemic.
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