How Did Women Peace Activists Respond to "Red Scare" Attacks during the 1920s?

Endnotes

Introduction

1.  Joan M. Jensen, "All Pink Sisters: The War Department and the Feminist Movement in the 1920s," chapter in Decades of Discontent: The Women's Movement, 1920-1940, eds. Lois Scharf and Joan M. Jensen (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1983), p. 211.
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2.  The Woman Patriot was a bi-monthly magazine edited by J. E. Eichelberger. It had originally been an anti-suffrage publication called Protest before women received the vote in 1920. In 1920 it changed its name and launched attacks on pacifists and the peace movement as well as social reformers and social legislation.
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3.  The Woman Citizen, the official publication of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, was a weekly founded in 1917 that incorporated the former Woman's Journal, Woman Voter, and National Suffrage News. After 1920 it became a monthly, and in 1930 it resumed the title Woman's Journal, ceasing publication in the early 1930s. See Mary Gray Peck, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography, (New York: H.W. Wilson, 1994), pp. 273-74; and Louise M. Young, In the Public Interest: The League of Women Voters, 1920-1970 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1998), p. 102, n31.
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4.  Emily Greene Balch was the National Secretary of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
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5.  Jensen, "All Pink Sisters," p. 211.
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6.  Catherine Foster, Women for All Seasons: The Story of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989), p. 127.
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7. John M. Craig, "Redbaiting, Pacifism, and Free Speech: Lucia Ames Mead and Her 1926 Lecture Tour in Atlanta and the Southeast," Georgia Historical Quarterly, 71 (Winter 1987): 601.
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8. For more on the National Council for Prevention of War and other unjustified attacks on it, see Charles DeBenedetti, The Peace Reform in American History, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980), pp. 109, 113, 114, 130, and 132.
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Document 13

9. Follow this link for information on Hannah Clothier Hull.
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10. The Nation was edited by Oswald Garrison Villard.
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Document 18

11. New York Times, 11 October 1928
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