The editors thank the National Gallery of Art for permission to use
"Gabriel Weathervane."

Why Were Illinois Indian Women Attracted to Catholicism, 1665-1750? How Did Living in an Outpost of Empire Influence Perceptions of Women's Sexual, Marital, and Public Roles in Eighteenth-Century Colonial St. Louis? From Wollstonecraft to Mill: What British and European Ideas and Social Movements Influenced the Emergence of Feminism in the Atlantic World, 1792-1869? How Did the Ladies Association of Philadelphia Force New Forms of Women's Activism during the American Revolution? How Did Susanna Rowson and Other Reformers Promote Higher Education as an Antidote to Women's Sexual Vulnerability, 1780-1820? How Did the Removal of the Cherokee Nation from Georgia Shape Women's Activism in the North, 1817-1838?

How Did Women's Antislavery Fiction Contribute to Debates about Gender, Slavery, and Abolition, 1828-1856?

How Did Oberlin Women Students Draw on their College Experience to Participate in Antebellum Social Movements, 1831-1861?

How Did Local Antislavery Women Form National Networks in the Antebellum United States? How Did Sarah Bagley Contribute to the Ten-Hour Movement in Lowell and How Did Her Labor Activism Flow into Other Reform Movements, 1836-1870? How Did Abolitionist Women and Their Slaveholding Relatives Negotiate Their Conflict over the Issue of Slavery? What Was the Appeal of Moral Reform to Antebellum Northern Women? How Did Diverse Activists Shape the Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform Movement? How Did Lucretia Mott's Activism between 1840 and 1860 Combine her Commitments to Antislavery and Women's Rights? Were the Social Practices Associated with Bible Communism Liberating or Oppressive for the Women of the Oneida Community?

How Did an International Agenda Shape the American Women’s Rights Movement, 1840-1869?

How do Contemporary Newspaper Accounts of the 1850 Worcester Woman's Rights Convention Enhance Our Understanding of the Issues Debated at That Meeting? Why Did Some Men Support the Women's Rights Movement in the 1850s, and How Did Their Ideas Compare to those of Women in the Movement?
How Did Northern White Women Participate in the Bleeding Kansas Conflict of the 1850s?

How Did Antislavery Women Use Portraits to Represent Themselves in the Transatlantic Antislavery Movement?

How Did Women Sculptors Contribute to and Draw Support from the Antislavery and Woman's Rights Movements, 1855-1875?

How Did Gender and Family Divisions among Shoeworkers Shape the 1860 New England Strike?

How Did White Women Aid Former Slaves during and after the Civil War and What Obstacles Did They Face? How Did Women Participate in the Underground Railroad? Why Did Colorado Suffragists Succeed in Winning the Right to Vote in 1893 and Not in 1877? How Did the Reform Agenda of the Minnesota Woman's Christian Temperance Union Change, 1878-1917? How Did Clara Foltz's Experiences as a Woman Lawyer and Suffragist Influence Her Conception of a Public Defender for Those Accused of Crime, 1878-1913?

How Did American and Japanese Gender Hierarchies Shape Japanese Women's Participation in the Transnational WCTU Movement in the 1880s?

Why Did African-American Women Join the Woman's Christian Temperance Union between 1880 and 1900?

How Did a Multi-Racial Movement Develop in the YWCA in Baltimore, 1883-1926? How Did Gender and Class Shape the Age of Consent Campaign Within the Social Purity Movement, 1886-1914? What were the Origins of International Women's Day?, 1886-1920? How Did Changes in the Built Environment at Hull-House Reflect the Settlement's Interaction with Its Neighbors, 1889-1912? How Did Victoria Earle Matthews's Life Reflect the Sometimes Conflicting Attitudes of Black Self-Help and Black Political Activism? How Did White Women Reformers with the Southern Utes Respond to Gendered Assimilationist Indian Policies? How Did Black and White Southern Women Campaign to End Lynching, 1890-1942? How Did African-American Women Define Their Citizenship at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893? How Did Florence Kelley's Campaign against Sweatshops in Chicago in the 1890s Expand Government Responsibility for Industrial Working Conditions? How Did the First Jewish Women's Movement Draw on Progressive Women's Activism and Jewish Traditions, 1893-1936?

 How Did the Kindergarten Movement Provide Women with Opportunities for Professional Development and Social Activism in the United States and Internationally?

What Gender Perspectives Shaped the Emergence of the National Association of Colored Women, 1895-1920?

How Did Women's War Relief in the Spanish-American War Alter Traditions of Female Benevolence and Pave the Way for Women's Formal Military Service?

How Did Settlement Workers at Greenwich House Promote the Arts as Integral to a Shared Social Life?

Greenwich House Collection
Greenwich House Papers

How Did the Views of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois toward Woman Suffrage Change between 1900 and 1915?

How Did Local Branches of the American Association of University Women Contribute to Their Communities, 1900-1940?

How Did the Debate about Widows' Pensions Shape Relief Programs for Single Mothers, 1900-1940?

A World of Difference: Portland Women of the YWCA, 1901-2000

How Did Iowa Women Activists Lobby for the Passage of the Juvenile Court Law, 1904?

How Did the General Federation of Women's Clubs Shape Women's Involvement in the Conservation Movement, and How Did Networking Contribute to the Success of Conservation Campaigns?

Elizabeth Glendower Evans and Progressive Reform: From Minimum Wage to Sacco and Vanzetti and the American Civil Liberties Union, 1907-1938

How Did Kate Richards O'Hare's Conviction and Incarceration for Sedition during World War I Change Her Activism?

How Was the Relationship between Workers and Allies Shaped by the Perceived Threat of Socialism in the New York City Shirtwaist Strike, 1909-1910?

How Did Cross-Class Alliances Shape the 1910 Chicago Garment Workers' Strike?

How Did Elisabeth Freeman's Publicity Skills Promote Woman Suffrage, Antilynching, and the Peace Movement, 1909-1919?

How Did Carrie Chapman Catt and Aletta Jacobs Interpret and Cope with Deep Differences among Women during Their 1911-12 Journey through Africa and Asia?

The 1912 Lawrence Strike: How Did Immigrant Workers Struggle to Achieve an American Standard of Living?

How Did Women Anti-Suffragists in New York Try to Reconcile the Contradictions between Their Strategies and Arguments?

How Did Belle La Follette Oppose Racial Segregation in Washington, D.C., 1913-1914?

How Did the National Woman's Party Fund Its Activities, 1913-1940?

How Did Japanese Women Peace Activists Interact with European Women as they Negotiated between Nationalism and Transnational Peace Activism to Promote Peace, 1915-1935?

How Did Women Activists Promote Peace in Their 1915 Tour of Warring European Capitals?

Maud Wood Park Archive: The Power of Organization

Part One: Maud Wood Park and the Woman Suffrage Movement

Part Two: Maud Wood Park in a Nation of Women Voters

How Did Animosity Between Margaret Sanger and Mary Ware Dennett Shape the Movement to Legalize Birth Control?

Why Did the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Campaign against Chemical Warfare, 1915-1930?

Why Did Congressional Lobbying Efforts Fail to Eliminate Contraception from Obscenity Laws, 1916-1937?

What Lobbying Tactics Did Suffragists Use to Obtain Congressional Approval of a Woman Suffrage Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, 1917-1920?

What Infant and Maternal Health Services Did Middle-Class Clubwomen Provide for Immigrant Women and Children in New York City, 1917-1920?

How Did Texas Women Win Partial Suffrage in a One-Party Southern State in 1918?

What Challenges Did Secretaries of the East St. Louis National Catholic Community House Face in their Social Work with Immigrants, 1918-1922?

How Did Black Women in the NAACP Promote the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, 1918-1923?

How Did the National Woman's Party Address the Issue of the Enfranchisement of Black Women, 1919-1924?

How Did the Republican Party Respond to Woman Suffragists' Entry into Electoral Politics, 1919-1926?

What Was the Relationship between Mary Church Terrell's International Experience and Her Work against Racism in the United States?

                    Mary Church Terrell Papers

Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women's Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military?

How Did Margaret Sanger's 1922 Tour of Japan Help Spread the Idea of Birth Control and Inspire the Formation of a Japanese Birth Control Movement?

How Did Leaders of the National Consumers' League and Their Lawyers Keep the Minimum Wage Alive from the Adkins Case to the Fair Labor Standards Act, 1923-1938?

Who Won the Debate over the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1920s?

How Did Women Shape the Presentation of Norwegian American Ethnicity at the 1925 Norse-American Centennial?

How Did Women Peace Activists Respond to "Red Scare" Attacks during the 1920s?

How Did Rank and File Women Construct the "New Negro Woman" within the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the 1920s?

What Perspectives Did African American Advocates Bring to the Birth Control Movement and How Did Those Perspectives Shape the History of the Harlem Branch Birth Control Clinic?

How Did Women Shape the Discourse and Further Interracial Cooperation in the Worldwide Mass Movement to Free the Scottsboro Boys?

How Did Women Needleworkers Influence New Deal Labor Policies in Puerto Rico?

How Did the League of Women Shoppers Use Their Privilege to Act in Solidarity with Workers, 1935-1948?

How Did Mexican Working Women Assert Their Labor and Constitutional Rights in the 1938 San Antonio Pecan Shellers Strike?

How Did the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and Chinese Garment Workers Unite to Organize the 1938 National Dollar Stores Strike?

How Did the March on Washington Movement's Critique of American Democracy in the 1940s Awaken African American Women to the Problem of Jane Crow?

Why Did the Iowa League of Women Voters Oppose the Equal Rights Amendment during the 1940s and 1950s?

How Did Florence Kitchelt Bring Together Social Feminists and Equal Rights Feminists to Reconfigure the Campaign for the ERA in the 1940s and 50s?

How Did Suburban Development and Domesticity Shape Women's Activism in Queens, New York, 1945-1968?

How Did White Southern Churchwomen Use Their Race, Gender, and Faith in the Struggle for Civil Rights, 1945-1968?

"The Ladder: A Lesbian Review, 1956-1972"

How Did the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) Work to Expand Women's Educational and Employment Opportunities, 1950-1977?

How Did Ideologies of Gender and Professionalism Intersect in the History of Nursing in Oregon?

How Did Catholic Women Participate in the Rebirth of American Feminism?

How Did African American Women Shape the Civil Rights Movement and What Challenges Did They Face?

How Did the Canadian Women's Liberation Movement Emerge from the Sixties Student Movements? The Case of Simon Fraser University

What Factors Led to the Success of the Historic 1970 Sex Discrimination Complaint Filed against the University of Michigan?

How and Why Was Feminist Legal Strategy Transformed, 1960-1973?

How Did State Commissions on the Status of Women Overcome Historic Antagonisms between Equal Rights and Labor Feminists to Create a New Feminist Mainstream, 1963-1973?

How Did Shirley Chisholm, the First African American Woman Elected to the United States Congress, Advance an Inclusive Feminist Politics in the 1960s and 1970s?

How Did Feminism Contribute to the Transformation of Radical Theater in the United States, 1966-1983?

  • Allentown Morning Call, Allentown, PA
  • Jose Carrillo, Seattle, WA
  • City Lights Books, San Francisco, CA
  • Daily Cardinal, Madison, WI
  • R.G. Davis, San Francisco, CA
  • Marcia McClintock Folsom, Boston, MA
  • Joan Holden, San Francisco, CA
  • Melody James, Westport, CT
  • Michael James, Chicago, IL
  • David Kolodney, Oakland CA
  • Margaret Leahy, San Francisco, CA
  • MIT Press Journals
  • San Francisco Chronicle
  • San Francisco Mime Troupe
  • Theodore Shank, La Jolla, CA

How Did the Los Angeles Woman's Building Keep Feminism Alive, 1970-1991?

  • The Woman's Building Digital Art Project
  • The Woman's Building, Los Angeles, California
  • Woman's Building Archive, Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles, California
  • Maria Karras
  • Marilyn Gottschall
  • Linda Nishio
  • Denise Yarfitz
  • Terry Wolverton

How Did Women's Groups in the American Library Association Promote Activism around Women's Issues in Librarianship during the 1970s?

  • American Library Association, Chicago, Ill.
  • Library Journal, New York, N.Y.
  • American Libraries, Chicago, Ill.
  • Wilson Library Bulletin

How Did Working-Class Feminists Meet the Challenges of Working across Differences?
The National Congress of Neighborhood Women, 1974-2006

  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
    National Congress of Neighborhood Women Records, 1974-1999
  • Janice Peterson
  • Christine Noschese
  • Linsy Van Gelder
  • Joyce Maynard and Rona Maynard
  • Rosemary Jackson
  • Sally Martino Fisher
  • Ethel Velez
  • Martha Ackelsberg
  • Janie Eisenberg
  • Tamar Carroll

How Did Diverse Activists in the Second Wave of the Women's Movement Shape Emerging Public Policy on Sexual Harassment?

  • Rochelle Lefkowitz
  • Karen Lindsay
  • Anne Dockery
  • Redbook
  • Karen Sauvigné
  • Archives of Appalachia, East Tennessee State University
  • Yale University Press

How Did National Women's Conference in Houston in 1977 Shape a Feminist Agenda for the Future?

  • Sarah Harder
  • Mal Johnson
  • National Women's Conference Committee
  • Journal of World History, University of Hawaii Press

How Did Iowa Coalitions Campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment in 1980 and 1992?

  • Iowa Women's Archives, University of Iowa Libraries

How Did Chinese Women Garment Workers in New York City Forge a Successful Class-Based Coalition during the 1982 Contract Dispute?

  • UNITE Local 23-25
  • Cornell University Press

How and Why Did the Guerrilla Girls Alter the Art World Establishment in New York City, 1985-1995?

Why and How Did a Small Group of Maverick Abortion Providers Called the November
Gang Come to Challenge Prevailing Conventions of Abortion Provision and What Were
Their Innovations?

  • Abortion Conversation Project
  • Ruth Arick
  • Elizabeth Barnes
  • Sally Bingham Collection, Duke University Library, Durham, N.C.
  • Renee N. Chelian
  • Daryl Chen
  • Sara Derenge
  • Dynamis
  • Amy Hagstrom Miller
  • Carole Joffe
  • Peg Johnston
  • Claire Keyes
  • Jeannie Ludlow
  • Terry Sallas Merritt
  • National Abortion Federation, Washington, D.C.
  • National Coalition of Abortion Providers
  • Shelley Oram
  • Our Bodies, Ourselves
  • Susan Postal
  • Arthur Shostak
  • Charlotte Taft
  • Rev. Rebecca Turner
  • Miriam Ward of Rewire
  • Carole Watchler
  • Pamela Wilson
  • Women's Studies Quarterly

How Do Social Movements Shape Civil Rights Legislation for Women? The 1994 Violence Against Women Act

  • Southern California Law Review
  • Harvard Law Review


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