How Did the Debate about Widows' Pensions Shape Relief Programs
for Single Mothers, 1900-1940?

Document List

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Part I: Widows' and Orphans' Social and Economic Conditions

Document 1: United States Census. "Conjugal Condition by Race and Sex and Geographical Divisions," 1900

Document 2: United States Census, "Marital Status of Women in the Civilian Labor Force, 1890 to 1910"

Document 3A: W. E. B. Du Bois, "Conjugal Condition," 1899

Document 3B: W. E. B. Du Bois, "Pauperism and Alcoholism," 1899

Document 3C: Isabel Eaton, "Special eport on Domestic Service: Conjugal Condition of Negro Domestics," 1899

Document 4: Lilian Brandt, "On the Verge of Dependence," 6 January 1906

Document 5: Crystal Eastman, "The Effect of Industrial Fatalities upon the Home," 1910

Document 6: Mary E. Richmond and Fred S. Hall, A Study of Nine Hundred and Eighty-five Widows Known to Certain Charity Organization Societies in 1910, 1913


Part II: Proposed Solutions for Widows' Poverty

Document 7: Electric Sewing Machine Society, Annual Report of the Managers, 1896

Document 8: Mary Katharine Conyngton, "Widows with Children," 1909

Document 9: Theodore Roosevelt, "Address to the White House Conference on Dependent Children," 1909

Document 10A: Frederic Almy, "Public Pensions to Widows: Experiences and Observations Which Lead Me to Oppose Such a Law," 1912

Document 10B: Mary E. Richmond, "Opposition to Mothers' Pensions," 1912

Document 11: Robert W. Hebberd, "Mothers' Pensions," 1913

Document 12A: New York State Commission on Relief for Widowed Mothers, Introduction, 1914

Document 12B: New York State Commission on Relief for Widowed Mothers, "Public Prevention of Poverty," 1914

Document 12C: New York State Commission on Relief for Widowed Mothers, "Alternatives Open to Widowed Mothers," 1914


Part III: The Implementation of Widows' Pensions

Document 13A: Bureau of Municipal Research, "Widows' Pensions," 1917

Document 13B: Bureau of Municipal Research, "The Significance of Widows' Pensions," 1917

Document 14: Laura A. Thompson, Laws Relating to "Mothers' Pensions" in the United States, Canada, Denmark, and New Zealand, 1919

Document 15: Mothers' Aid, 1931, 1933

Document 16: Social Security Act, 14 August 1935

Document 17: An Act to Amend the Social Security Act, 1939



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